12 Ekim 2011 Çarşamba

3 Temmuz 2011 Pazar

PCR Laboratories

In almost all laboratories in each scientific discipline, biochemistry, pharmacy, there is a laboratory reactor somehow hard work for the common good. These reactors in a variety of types, sizes and formats. There are stirring reactors, the rectors of high-pressure membrane reactors and reactor temperature control. The calorimeter is a form of the reactor, as the devices are polymerase chain reaction or PCR reactors.

Stirred reactors, the container that actually holds the chemicals in the reaction layers of metal or glass, the glass is usually on the inside. The glass liner prevents any kind of reaction of the mucous membranes, and to ensure that no contamination when cleaned and sterilized. There is an agitator, a metal or a plastic paddle that is inserted through the top or bottom. It is the chemical mixer. The layers can be sandwiched between a cooling or heating elements to control the temperature accurately, making a catalytic reaction to occur. The sensors are installed throughout the system for accurate calibration and measurement technology.

Membrane reactors have become popular in the pharmaceutical industry because of their reactions to the precision cleaning. These reactors have a half-permeation-specific, so that some molecules to pass. This use allows accurate measurement and volume during the reaction. Laboratory membrane reactors are very useful for the analysis and purification of proteins, and a role in pharmaceutical development. This can be used as a filtration because of its porosity or pore size, thickness to act, or materials. You can also serve as a catalyst, acting embedded with chemical reaction in the experiment.

Laboratory reactors under high pressure is also the name entails. High pressures are used in the reaction, as well as agitation and temperature control. High pressures are required for the development of many materials, testing and the benefits of using this type of reactor. High-tech development, plastic, pharmaceutical, laboratory reactors, high pressure design have their place in science.

Laboratory reactors are temperature controlled unique in that it is programmed to a specific temperature or temperature during the mixing or reaction to maintain. This can significantly sensitive to purification by crystallization, in the form of crystals at specific temperatures at specific temperatures and can precipitate. The jacket around the core, or a container can, liquid nitrogen, for example, run through the room. It could also be pumped with a global solution through the shell at a given time. The temperatures can be changed in an instant, allowing scientists a variety of laboratory reactions.

The calorimeters are used in many scientific fields. These reactors have the ability, the chemical composition of a substance from the heat, or calorie content measured. This reactor is in the determination of the heat used during a chemical reaction. Typically it is a sealed metal container with integrated sensors in the reaction chamber. This is useful for determining the color in foods.

PCR or polymerase chain reaction, are the laboratory reactors under study DNA, RNA and identification of these molecules. PCR was used in the biosciences, not only, but also biomedical and forensic disciplines as well. Laboratory reactors have proven invaluable to many scientific fields, and they are constantly being developed to improve performance and range.

10 Haziran 2011 Cuma

What is Primer?

A primer is a component of the nucleic acid that serves as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are necessary for the replication of DNA because the enzymes that catalyze DNA polymerases process only add new nucleotides to a strand of DNA exist. Polymerase replication starts at the 3'end of the primer, and copies the opposite strand.

In most cases replication of natural DNA, the primer for the synthesis of DNA replication and a short strand of RNA (which can be created de novo).

Many laboratory techniques of biochemistry and molecular biology that involve DNA polymerases, including DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), DNA primers necessary. These primers are usually short, chemically synthesized oligonucleotides with a length of about twenty bases. They were hybridized with target DNA is then copied by the polymerase.

6 Haziran 2011 Pazartesi

Polymerase Chain Reaction Difficulties

Currently a real enticing proficiency, Polymerase Chain Reaction may possibly also exist real catchy. The polymerase reaction is really sensible about the grades of bivalent cations (specially Mg2 +) and bases, and the statuses for each special practical application is needed to be worked out. Fuzee designing is really important for effectual elaboration. The primings for the reaction is needed to be really relevant to the templet to be magnified. Interbreeding responsiveness with non-target DNA successions comes across non-specific elaboration of DNA. Also, the fuzes is necessary to not allow you to normalizing to their selves or each other, as this tends to end in the very effective elaboration of little nonsensical DNAs. The reaction is throttled in the sizing of the DNAs to be magnified

20 Nisan 2011 Çarşamba

Disease Diagnosis

In this case, PCR is a powerful tool for criminals that are known. Recently, PCR is used for clinical diagnosis. PCR analysis of only one unique viral / bacterial infection, you can feel the first stage of a high-speed, but the heritage of the disease can be determined.PCR in Disease Diagnosis to support the patient in a very early stage in order to prevent more damage can be considered.

13 Nisan 2011 Çarşamba


Genotyping reliability of non-invasive sources of DNA used for the research problem. We are the source of DNA for genotyping in order to increase reliability and efficiency of processing methods to emphasize the importance of DNA extraction. We quantitatively compare the reliability of different techniques DNA extraction and selection of materials for a simple method for genotyping and general are presented. For Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) fecal samples we have different fecal pellet materials, different amounts of material and fecal pellets of the four microsatellite loci and four samples heterozygous at each site for steps of DNA extraction to remove the results of the comparison both. We PCR success and peak height (signal strength) Analysis of indices of access sequencer Chromatograms developed and evaluated the results of PCR using 192 for all medical treatment. PCR outermost blob of material as a result of DNA almost identical to the production of blood drawn. Pellet was used to extract DNA when the internal material, PCR results were poor models and inconsistent. 60 mg 15 mg reduced the use of PCR success was not sensitive to the amount of pellet material. Our index only doubled PCR fecal samples of tissue or blood, and genotyping errors genotypes compared with the potential to provide information about many. Our PCR in DNA isolation extraction method probably produced the following patterns of deposition is bad fast dry pelleted is widely used in herbivores.

11 Nisan 2011 Pazartesi


RT-PCR is a pretty standard procedure, and now its use is extremely broad. At its most basic application, PCR can be extended to small amount of template DNA (or RNA) in large quantities within a few hours. This is done by mixing the DNA on both sides of the DNA primers (reverse), Taq polymerase (Thermus aquaticus type, polymerase thermophile that is able to withstand very high temperatures), free nucleotides (dNTPs on DNA, RNA, NTPs), and buffer. The temperature is then denatured, and alternating hot and cold reanneal DNA polymerase, the addition of new complementary strands each time. In addition to the main use of PCR, which is specially designed primers will ligate to two different pieces of DNA together, or add the restriction site, and many other creative applications. It is clear that PCR is a procedure that is an integral addition to molecular biology tools and techniques are constantly improved over the years.

10 Nisan 2011 Pazar

Real-Time PCR machine

The measurement of the pros and cons of different real-time PCR, or qPCR platforms for its own laboratory, factors to consider are the following: support of chemical processes, multiple personality, chemistry, productivity, flexibility, size, ease of use and powerful software package, reproducibility, speed, size, technical assistance, support, and not the costs, not just the initial cost of equipment and services, as well as the related costs of consumables and reagents. It is also possible to "try before you buy", most companies offer a loan machine. This makes sense in some of them, if you narrowed down your choices. The user experience can not be ignored, and now there are several useful web sites and groups where the e-mail questions and inquiries.

Real-time PCR

In the past, the PCR was carried out of the tube and the reaction is complete when the products of the reaction (the amplified DNA fragments) is analyzed by gel electrophoresis and visualized. However, the Real-Time PCR enables the analysis of the products, while the reaction is really going on. This is achieved by different fluorescent dyes that react to the amplified product can be measured with an instrument. This facilitates a quantitative DNA. Not just immediately say "our" DNA sample, but the "how". Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) technique, as is known, the amount used in the PCR product (usually a real-time PCR process) measurement. This is the method of choice for quantitative measurement of the starting amount of DNA, cDNA or RNA. PCR is often used to determine whether the DNA sequence present in the sample, and the number of copies of the sample. Another advantage of the Real-Time PCR test for speed, because it is not necessary for electrophoresis, or other proceeding shall be done after the DNA amplification reaction.

The development methods of the sealed tube fluorescent polymerase chain reaction greatly simplified the process of quantification. The current approach is to use fluorescent probes that interact with the PCR amplification product of the kinetic measurements of accumulation possible. These methods are a general approach to quantitative DNA probe as a DNA-binding fluorescent dyes. There are a few carefully-specific probes, that the phenomenon of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to use. Development of tools to deliver real-time monitoring of fluorescence within the PCR reaction allowed the ship is a very important step in the PCR. The technology is very flexible and many alternative instruments and fluorescent probe systems currently available. Real-time PCR can be completed very quickly, since no manipulations are required after amplification. Identification of the amplification products of the probe detection in real-time analysis of very precise size of the gels. Analysis of the progress of the reaction sequence allows the exact quantification of a wide dynamic range, provided that appropriate standards are available. Further investigation of the real-time PCR products of the initial reaction mixture, using probes and melting analysis can detect sequence variants including single base mutations. Real-time PCR applications in many areas of biological science. Applications include the analysis of gene expression, the diagnosis of infectious diseases and human genetic studies. As a result, the devices in real-time fluorimetry machines are also compatible with alternative methods such as the reinforcement provided lishing, fluorescent endpoint is available.

PCR(polymerase chain reaction) is used what?

chain reaction in a wide range of scientific disciplines are used in a growing number of scientists. DNA cloning procedures of microbiology and molecular biology research laboratories, for example by PCR, Southern, blot, DNA sequencing, recombinant DNA technology for use in just a few. Clinical microbiology, PCR is very valuable for the diagnosis of microbial infections, and epidemiological studies. PCR is used in forensic laboratories, and required a very small amount of the original DNA, for example, enough DNA is particularly useful because it can be a drop of blood or hair.

What is rt-pcr?

What is RT-PCR? The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique widely used in molecular biology, microbiology, genetics, diagnostics, clinical laboratories, forensic science, environmental science, hereditary studies, paternity testing, and many other applications. The name, polymerase chain reaction, comes from the DNA polymerase used to amplify (replicate many times) a piece of DNA by in vitro enzymatic replication. The original molecule or molecules of DNA are replicated by the DNA polymerase enzyme, thus doubling the number of DNA molecules. Then each of these molecules is replicated in a second "cycle" of replication, resulting in four times the number of the original molecules. Again, each of these molecules is replicated in a third cycle of replication. This process is known as a "chain reaction" in which the original DNA template is exponentially amplified. With PCR it is possible to amplify a single piece of DNA, or a very small number of pieces of DNA, over many cycles, generating millions of copies of the original DNA molecule. PCR has been extensively modified to perform a wide array of genetic manipulations, diagnostic tests, and for many other uses...